Species, also called Asiatic elephant, belonging to the family of elephants, named by Carl Linnaeus, 1758.
Caracteristics of the asian elephant
- The neck is low, and then curving up
- The skin is less wrenkled
- Ears are small, looks like indian continent
- Head has two bumps
- Forehead is protruding
- The underlip is long, narrow and pointed
- Only abt 50% of bulls wear long tusks
- Females wear tushes or nothing
- 19 pairs of ribs (Sumatran subspecies 20)
- The frontfeet has five nails, the hindfeet four
(like the african forest elephant)
- The trunktip has one prehensile protrusion
Taxonomy and distribution
Asian elephant is a species belonging to the
family of elephants (Elephantidae), which is included in the
mammal order Proboscidea. It was formerly called Indian elephant,
which is a confusing name, since Asian elephants once distributed from Tigris and Euphrates Valleys of Syria and Iraq to the yellow river of China and South to Sumatra (Daniel, 1995).
They presently occur in 13 asian countries, from west India , to southern China, and in southeast from the malay peninsula to the islands Sumatra and Borneo, why "Indian" is unappropiate, and the name "Indian elephant" even if only used for the Indian subspecies is also not totally relevant, since this subspecies covers all elephants living on Asian mainland.
So when speaking about the entire species (Elephas maximus), it should be refered to as Asian elephant, or Asiatic elephant.
Since the Asian elephant live in dense forest and djungles, is it much more difficult to estimate the present individual population number, why official population numbers follow a minimum and maximum estimation, and a suggested average.
Note: My total mean number 43947 differ from Gajahs total mean of 43 445, since in their calculation (obviously a total mean with and sum total-min + sum total-max / 2?), they used 0 (zero) in the minimum estimation for Thailand, calculation, while, even if Min values is lacking (NA), for sure, 0 does not reflect a realistic Min value. I simply made a mean total, by adding all records in the right mean column.
- Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatrensis)
- Borneo elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis)
- Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)
- Sri Lankan elephant (Elephas maximus maximus)
The Asian Elephant: An Action Plan for Its Conservation by Charles Santiapillai, Peter Jackson, Iucn, Ssc Asian Elephant Specialist Group.