Thandora at Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve

Female ♀ African Bush elephant (Loxodonta africana) Thandora at Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve

† Thandora
ID Number:
Species: African Bush elephant (Loxodonta africana)
Sex and age:Female ♀, unknown maybe about years old (estimated age)
Dead date: 2013-06-13
Death reason: disease: toxic shock
Location:Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve
ArrivedGondwana Big Five Game Reserve 2013-03-09
from Bloemfontein Zoo
Born: wild
Offspring and year of birth:
  1. (F) 2006-01-17 Ashanti
Document updated2013-03-06:�will be transfered?
2013-06-14: dead, date not confirmed
2013-06-16: death reason
2013-03-06: After 23 years in captivity, an elephant at the Bloemfontein Zoo will soon be released back into the wild. Zoo officials decided to free 27-year-old Thandora after the death of her companion. She will soon be joining a herd of elephants in the Gondwana Game Reserve in the Western Cape.

2013-06-13: Thandora was found dead.

The oligosaccharides present in the milk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana), collected 4 days post partum, were separated by size exclusion-, anion exchange- and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) before characterisation by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were identified. Neutral oligosaccharides characterised were isoglobotriose, Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc and a novel oligosaccharide that has not been reported in the milk or colostrum of any other mammal: Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc. Acidic oligosaccharides that are also found in the milk of Asian elephant were Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc and Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3){Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�6)}Gal(β1�4)Glc, while Neu5Gc(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)[Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�6)]Gal(β1�4)Glc and Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3){Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�6)}Gal(β1�4)Glc have not been found in Asian elephant milk. The oligosaccharides characterised contained both α(2�3)- and α(2�6)-linked Neu5Ac residues. They also contain only the type II chain, as found in most non-human, eutherian mammals.

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