molar from Sangiran, Java.
Nat. History Museum Vienna
(Photo © Jutta Kirchner, Vienna Zoo)
The genus Stegodon, (from Greek stegos: meaning roof, and odon: meaning tooth, refering to the step ridges on the molar tooth) belongs to belongs to the family Stegodontidae (which belongs to the true Mastodons, Mastodontoidea), and has its origins in the late Miocene of Asia.
Stegodon moved into Africa in the Pliocene and coexisted in Asia with the asian elephant Elephas throughout Pleistocene in southern China (Takahashi & Namatsu 2000).
- Stegodon airawana
- Stegodon aurorae (The japanese Akebono elephant)
- Stegodon elephantoides (Myanmar, Java)
- Stegodon insignis (Pakistan)
- Stegodon ganesha
- Stegodon orientalis (China, Japan) - Oriental Stegodont
- Stegodon shinshuensis
- Stegodon sompoensis (Sulawesi, Indonesia)
- Stegodon sondaari (A dwarf population survived until 12,000 years ago on the Island of Flores, prey of Homo floresiensis, (the flores "Hobbit")
- Stegodon tetrabelodon syrticus (Shabi, Libya)
- Stegodon trigonocephalus
- Stegodon zdanski (China)