The Mediterranean dwarf elephant (Palaeoloxodon falconeri), also referred to as pygmy elephant, Maltese pygmy elephant, or Sicilian dwarf elephant, is an extinct species of elephant belonging to the genus Palaeoloxodon is an extinct Siculo-Maltese species of elephant that was derived from the Straight-tusked elephant Palaeoloxodon antiquus.
In 1867, George Busk had proposed the species Elephas falconeri (or Mammuthus falconeri?) for many of the smallest molars selected from the material originally ascribed by Hugh Falconer to Palaeoloxodon melitensis.
Palaeoloxodon (Elephas) antiquus ancestors most likely reached the Mediterranean islands of Malta and Sicily from North Africa or possibly, from northern Europe during a period of Pleistocene maximum. When the sea levels were around 100 m (328 ft) lower, that significantly reduced distances and opened land bridges in between the islands and both to and from the mainland.
This island-bound elephant was an example of insular dwarfism, with an adult male specimen MPUR/V n1 measured 96.5 cm (3 ft 2.0 in) in shoulder height and weighed about 305 kg (672 lb), and an adult female specimen MPUR/V n2 measured 80 cm (2 ft 7.5 in) in shoulder height and weighed about 168 kg (370 lb)