Elephants at temple locations in India


89 temple locations has kept elephants in India
There is presently 115 (71,40) living elephants in temple locations in India (in this database)

Region: India is in this database included in asiaOther regions
Wild elephants:

India has about 27,312 (min. 26000, max. 28000) wild elephants. Source:Baskaran et al. (2011)

Location holdings:

89 temple locations has kept 178 elephants in India

(Database tables with collection of elephants further down on the page)

Elephants in temple locations115 (71,40) living63 (40,23) dead
Sex ratio and
Management:
 Male  71 / 115 
 62%
 Female  40 / 115 
 35%
 Free contact  113 / 115 
 98%
 Protected contact  0 / 115  0%
 No contact  0 / 115  0%
 Unknown contact  0 / 115  0%
 wild  1 / 115 
 1%



1840: Elephants need for timber extraction were secured from various sources within India, including transfers .from the army Commissariat, as well as from the wild as was done by the Bengal government Khedda establishment which was created in Dacca in the early 1840. (Krishnamurthy 2002)

2000: A survey by Project Elephant in 2000 found a total of 3,400 captive elephants: 2,540 privately owned, 190 in temples, 480 with forest departments, almost 150 in zoos and circuses.

2001: India’s first elephant reserve was created in Jharkhand in 2001 under Project Elephant.
2005: India has around 21,300 elephants in 11 elephant ranges in India, according to the last census in 2005. The country also has 4,000 captive elephants, 800 of which are in Kerala. (Cheeran et al)
2007: 27, 700 elephants (census 2007-2008)

2009: A decision was made to relocate elephants from Zoos and circuses to forest elephants camps in more natural surrondings.

2011: According to the 2007 census, there are 27,669 to 27,715 elephants in its various reserves and habitats as against 25,604 in 1993.

2017: According to the country’s first ever synchronised Elephant Census conducted in 2017, there are 27,312 elephants across 23 states. According to the report, released by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change on August 12, Karnataka has the highest number of elephants (6,049), followed by Assam (5,719) and Kerala (3,054). In 2012, there were 1,559 elephants in Uttarakhand, and their population rose to 1,839 by 2017.
A maximum of 14,005 tuskers are in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra followed by 9,305-9,355 in northeastern regions with Assam having the highest number of 5,281 pachyderms. Eastern states, including Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh have 2,633 elephants while in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh their population is 1,726, the data said.

2019: A committee was formed to prepare a National Elephant Action Plan.

2020-10-05: The Union environment ministry has proposed an amendment to the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 to accord legal status to elephant reserves and corridors on the lines of tiger reserves. With the proposed amendment, the ministry proposes to have a similar legal framework for 30 elephant reserves across 15 states and statutory status for Project Elephant. India is home to about 30,000 elephants, or 60% of the global Asian elephant population.

Human elephant conflict (HEC)


Home to ca 60 percent of Asias elephants, India has the highest death rate from human-elephant conflict, with 200-250 people and 100 elephants killed annually. Habitat fragmentation, poaching of tusked males, and patchy forest law enforcement are problems, but numbers are rebounding.

2020: According to data shared with the Lok Sabha on September 23, close to 2,300 people were killed by elephants in the past five years until 2019, which was 10 times the number killed by tigers. Also, 400 elephants were killed by poachers or through poisoning by local residents. The Lok Sabha reply revealed that at least 433 people have been killed across West Bengal between April 2014 and September 2019. In Odisha, Jharkhand and Chhattishgarh, the death toll was 447, 391 and 329, respectively, during the period.

Captive elephants







2000: A survey by Project Elephant in 2000 found a total of 3,400 captive elephants: 2,540 privately owned, 190 in temples, 480 with forest departments, almost 150 in zoos and circuses. According to R. Sukumar, chairman of the Centre for Ecological Sciences at the premier Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, 3,500 of the estimated 14,000 captive Asian elephants can be found in India.

Many of them in temples and camps where they were used as live tractors for timber logging. Today those elephants are often used as tourist riding elephants in previous teak forests that has been transfered to protected areas.

In 2009, a decision was made to relocate elephants from Zoos and circuses to forest elephants camps in more natural surrondings.


2009: According to Dr B K Gupta, evaluation and monitoring officer of CZA, India had 140 elephants in 26 zoos and 16 circuses as on March 31 2009. Of these, Mysore and Trivandrum had the largest number at 9 and 8 respectively.

2009: According to the report "Captive Elephants in Zoo", (Varma, S., Sujata, S.R., Sarma, K.K., Bhanage, N., Agarwal, M., and Bhavsar, S. (2008). Captive Elephants in Zoos: An Investigation into the Welfare and Management of Captive Elephants in Zoos of India. Elephants in Captivity CUPA/ANCFTechnical Report No 4. Compassion Unlimited Plus Action (CUPA) and Asian Nature Conservation Foundation (ANCF), Bangalore, India): Andhra Pradesh had 7 elephants in 1 zoo, Assam had 9 in 1 zoo, Gujarat had 4 elephants in 2 zoos (2,2,), Karnataka had 16 elephants in 2 zoos, Kerala 1, Maharashtra 7 in 3 zoos, and Tamil Nadu had 6 elephants in 1 zoo. Among these elephants there were 32 females and 17 males (Source online publication

2020-09-21: India plans to build a biometric database and issue an ID number for every elephant in captivity across the country after the death of a pregnant female prompted an outcry. Blood samples will be taken from close to 3,000 elephants. Each will be given a unique identity number based on their DNA, under the plan set out by the government-backed conservation group Project Elephant.

Karnataka


2020: As per the last all-India survey, there are 8,500 elephants in Karnataka.
2008: About 163 captive elephants under five different management regimes. (Captive Elephants of Karnataka, 2008)
2018: Karnataka’s elephant camps have about 95 elephants and about 42 elephants were housed in the State zoos. (B.P. Ravi, 2018)

Kerala


Kerala has a population of around 520 captive elephants (P.K. Kesavan , 2018). The Temple at Guruvayoor owns the largest herd of 65. Of the 702 captives in the state, only 118 are females, less than 17 per cent of the total captive population. And of the 118, more than 60 per cent have crossed the reproductive age. There is no record of a pregnancy as a result of a union between two captive elephants in the state. In the last four years two female elephants delivered, one in Kollam and another in Kottayam, but both had conceived in Assam.

2009: By 2009, about 700 elephants were in captivity across the state of Kerala: Private individuals owned 508 elephants, temples had 174, forest camps had 8 and a zoo was home to 2 elephants.

Tamil Nadu


In Tamil Nadu (formerly the Madras Presidency) the Forest-Department had been maintaining elephants for over 140 years. In the Anamallais, the elephant camp was located in Sungam (now in Kerala) till the state reorganization in 1956. Subsequently in 1956 the camp was shifted to Varagaliar in the Ulandy valley and continues there. The Theppakkadu Elephant Camp was established in 1927 in Mudumalai Range. In the Anamallais where large areas were cleared for planting with teak, elephant capturing operation was taken up in 1889 and until and up to 1972 more than 600 elephants were captured from wild to meet the demand for working elephants. In Mudumalai, elephant capturing was taken up in 1910 and continued till 1953. (Krishnamurthy 2002)

2002: at Mudhumalai 27 elephants (12 at Theppakadu camp, 15
at Abhayaranyam camp) 16 in AnamaIlais(9 at Varagaliar camp, 1 at Kozhikamuthi camp and 6 are deputed for "anti elephant depredation work" surrounding tea gardens at Valaparai and at Manomboli), 5 elephants in Arignar Anna Zoolologica) Park and one at the Childrens Comer, Guindy. Thus in total there are 49 animals on the roll overall under the management of Govt. of Tamil Nadu.


Recommended Citation

Koehl, Dan, Facts about elephants in India. Elephant Encyclopedia, (2020) available online retrieved at https://www.elephant.se/country.php?name=India.
(archived at the Wayback machine)

Sources, among others


Internal relevant links

  • The elephant database startpage. Statistics
  • News about elephants in India (From the sister site Elephant News)


  • NameElephant collectionTypePlaceDistrictProvinceStateRegion
    Ahmednagar unspecified temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstemplePune
    (map)
    Maharashtra
    Alakhdham Ashram
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleUjjain
    (map)
    Madhya Pradesh
    Alaknoor temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (1,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleBelgaum District
    (map)
    Karnataka
    Annapoorneshwari Temple Hosanadu Kodyadka
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleDakshina Kannada district, Mangalore
    (map)
    Karnataka
    Aranmula Parthasarathy Temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated2 deathstemplePathanamthitta districtKerala
    Arulmigu Arunachaleswarar Temple (Tiruvannamalai)
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated1 deathstempleTiruvannamalai
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Arulmigu Jambukeswarar Sri Akhilandeswari Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleTiruchirappalli
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Arulmigu Sugavaneswarar Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleSalem
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Bhavani Sangameshwarar Vedanayagiamman temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleBhavani,
    (map)
    Erode districtTamil Nadu
    Brihadeeswarar Big Temple (Peruvudaiyar Kovil)
    Kept totally 0 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstemple ThanjavurTamil Nadu
    Chengalloor Sree Mahadeva Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstemple
    (map)
    Chengannur Mahadevar Temple (Chenkalloor Mahadeva Temple)
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleThiruvananthapuramKerala
    Chidambaram Nataraja temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleChidambaram
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Cochin Devaswom
    Kept totally 13 elephants
    , 11 present (10,1)0 births0 relocated2 deathstempleErnakulam
    (map)
    Kerala
    Cochin Thirumala Devaswom
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstemple
    (map)
    Kerala
    Davangere Durgambika Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (1,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleDavanagere
    (map)
    Karnataka
    Guruvayur Devaswom Aanathavalam (Punnathur Kota)
    Kept totally 61 elephants
    , 46 present (40,6)0 births1 relocated14 deathstempleThrissur
    (map)
    Guruvayur Devaswom (Kovilakam)
    Kept totally 3 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births3 relocated0 deathstempleThrissur
    Ilanji Kumarasamy Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleIlanji Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu
    Jyotiba temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleKolhapur
    (map)
    Maharashtra
    Kalika Durga Parameshwarai Temple, Vidyaranyapura
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleBangaloreKarnataka
    Kamakshi Amman Temple
    Kept totally 3 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births3 relocated0 deathstempleKanchipuram
    (map)
    Tamil NaduTondaimandalam
    Kolavige Rama Temple Elephant Camp
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (1,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleHunsurKarnataka
    Kollampuzha Thiruvarattu Kavu
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleAttingalThiruvananthapuram district, Kerala
    Koodalagar Azhagar Kovil (Alagar temple)
    Kept totally 3 elephants
    , 1 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated1 deathstempleMadurai
    Koodalmanikyam Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (1,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleThrissur DistrictKerala
    Kottarakkara Sree Maha Ganapathy Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleKottarakara
    (map)
    Kerala
    Kukke Shri Subrahmanya temple (Kukke Pattana)
    Kept totally 3 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated2 deathstempleSullia Taluk, MangaloreKarnataka
    Kuttankulangara Sri Krishna Temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 1 present (1,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleThrissur district
    (map)
    Kerala, south India
    Mahalingeswaraswamy Temple (Sri Mahalinga Swamy Temple)
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleTiruvidaimaruthur
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Malayalappuzha Durga Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (1,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstemplePathanamthittaKerala
    Malayinkeezhu Sree Krishna Swami Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (1,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleThiruvananthapuram
    (map)
    Kerala
    Manakula Vinayagar Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstemplePondicherry
    Mayiladuthurai Mayuranathaswami Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleMayiladuthurai
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Minnamthottil temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleChavaraKollam
    Mysore Palace Temple
    Kept totally 16 elephants
    , 8 present (1,6)0 births3 relocated5 deathstempleMysore
    (map)
    Nagore Dargah (Hazrat Syed Shahul Hameed Dargah)
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleNagore, Nagapattinam district
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Nanjangud Srikanteshwara Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleMysore
    (map)
    Karnataka
    Nayarambalam Bhagavathy Temple (Nayarambalam NSS Trust)
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleCochinErnakulam, Kerala
    Neyyattinkara Sree Krishna Swami Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleNeyyattinkaraKerala
    Padinjattinkara Mahadeva temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleKottarakkaraKerala
    Palani Arulmigu Dhandayuthapani Temple
    Kept totally 3 elephants
    , 2 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated1 deathstemplePalani
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Paramekkavu Devaswom temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleThrissur
    Pariyanampatta Mookambika Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (1,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstemplePalakkadKerala
    Perur Patteeswaraswamy temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleCoimbatoreTamil Nadu
    Rajarajeshwara Temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 1 present (1,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleKannur
    (map)
    Kerala
    Rameswaram Arulmighu Ramanathaswamy temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleRameshwaram, Tamil Nadu
    Rektha Kanda Swamy Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleOmalloor, Pathanamthitta DistrictKarnataka
    Renganathar Swamy temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleSrirangam
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Sabarimala Sree Ayyappa Temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births2 relocated0 deathstempleSabarimalaKarnataka
    Samayapuram Sri Mariamman Temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births2 relocated0 deathstempleThiruchirapalli
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Sankarankulangara temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 2 present (2,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstemplePunkunnam, Thrissur
    Sarathi Anjaneya Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleDavanagereKarnataka
    Shree Jagadguru Rambhapuri Veerasimhasan Mahasamsthan Peetha
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleBalehonnurKarnataka
    Shri Jagadguru Fakireshwar Temple (Sri Jagatguru Pakkireshwara Samsthana Mutt)
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleShirahattiKarnataka
    Shri Kshetra Dharmasthala Manjunatha Swamy Temple
    Kept totally 4 elephants
    , 3 present (0,3)1 births0 relocated1 deathstempleBeltangady
    (map)
    Karnataka
    Shri Panchayati Akhada Mahanirvani temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleHaridwar
    (map)
    Uttarakhand
    Shringeri temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleChikkamagalurKarnataka
    Siruguppa temple with unknown name
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleSiruguppaKarnataka
    Sitamarhi Ashram
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleVaranasi
    Sree Poornathrayeesa Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleCochiKerala
    Sree Thirumandhamkunnu Bhagavathi Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleAngadipuram, Perinthalmanna
    (map)
    Kerala
    Sri 108 Acharya Keshu Bhusan Trust
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleBelgaumKarnataka
    Sri Humcha Padmavathi Devi Jain Temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleHumcha, Shimoga DistrictKarnataka
    Sri Kollur Mookambika temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated1 deathstempleKollur, Kundapur Taluk, Karnataka
    Sri Meenakshi Sundareswarar Amman temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleMaduraiTamil-Nadu
    Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleTiruchirappalli
    (map)
    Tiruchirappalli districtTamil Nadu
    Sri Shanthisagar Maharaj Shanthisagar Chatra Ashram
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleShedbalKarnataka
    Sulebhavi Shree Mahalaxmi Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleBelgaumKarnataka
    Swaminarayan Akshardham temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleNew Delhi
    (map)
    North East Delhi
    Temple of Sri Sri Radha Madhava (Krishna world headquarters)
    Kept totally 4 elephants
    , 2 present (0,2)0 births0 relocated2 deathstempleMayapurWest Bengal
    Thanjavur Brihadishvara temple (Rajarajesvaram or Peruvudaiyar Kovil)
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleThanjavur
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    The Art Of Living International Center (Sri Ravi Shankars Ashram)
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 2 present (1,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleBengaluru
    (map)
    Karnataka
    Thechikkottukavu Peramangalthu Devaswom
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 2 present (2,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleThrissur
    (map)
    Kerala
    Thiruchendur Subramanya Swamy Temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated1 deathstempleThiruchendur
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Thirunallar Saneeswaran Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleKaraikalPondicherri, Tamil-Nadu
    Thiruthani Subramanya Swamy Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleMadurai
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Thiruvambadi Devaswom temple
    Kept totally 7 elephants
    , 2 present (2,0)0 births0 relocated5 deathstempleThrissur
    Thiruvithamcore Devaswam Board
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleKollamKerala
    Thiruvullakkavu Sree Dharma Sastha Temple
    Kept totally 2 elephants
    , 2 present (2,0)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleThrissur districtKerala
    Tirupati Venkateswara Temple (Tirumala temple)
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleTirumalaAndhra Pradesh
    Travancore Devaswom Board (TDB)
    Kept totally 6 elephants
    , 2 present (2,0)0 births2 relocated2 deathstempleThiruvananthapuram
    (map)
    Kerala
    Udupi Sri Krishna Matha
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleUdupi
    (map)
    Karnataka
    Udupi Sri Krishna Matha (Udupi Shiroor mutt)
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleUdupiKarnataka
    Vaitheeswaran Koil temple (Pullirukkuvelur)
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleVaitheeswaran Koil
    (map)
    Vala Subramaniya Swamy Temple (Virudhunagar)
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births0 relocated1 deathstempleVirudhunagar
    (map)
    Tamil Nadu
    Virupaksha Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleHampi
    (map)
    Karnataka
    Yamai Devi Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 0 present (0,0)0 births1 relocated0 deathstempleAundh, Satara district
    (map)
    Maharashtra
    Yediyur Siddhalingeshwara Swamy Temple
    Kept totally 1 elephants
    , 1 present (0,1)0 births0 relocated0 deathstempleYadiyur
    (map)
    Tumakur DistrictKarnataka



    This document was updated: 2020-10-29 07:28:47


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