Definition of Musth

From the elephant glossary Section: endocrinology

Wild elephant bull in India in musth. Photo: <a href="">Yathin S Krishnappa, Wikimedia</a>.
Wild elephant bull in India in musth. Photo: Yathin S Krishnappa, Wikimedia.
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Wild elephant bull in India in musth. Photo: Yathin S Krishnappa, Wikimedia.

Relevant Literature about Musth

Musth is a sexual aggressive period among among adult male elephants, (over 15-20 years old) sometimes referred to as similar to male deer's "Rutting".

There is a three weeks pre-musth-condition, about one month high-musth, and one post-musth condition. Their temporal glands become swollen, from where a strong smelling fluid (in India called Dana, rich of testosterone, that flows from the temporal glands and runs down on their cheeks. During musth the males are very aggressive, and sexual active.

According to Cynthia Moss, author of the book elephant memories, the older females in a heard gives passage to musth males when a female is in estrous, while they block the way for younger males, not in musth. But males are always able to cover a female, also outside the musth period.

Recently it was discovered that long-term administration of leuprolide acetate (LA) depot reduces the musth. Early musth signs ceased within 3 days of drug administration after 10 of 12 injections.

The reason for the musth seems to be that it prevents inbreeding. If the bulls would not be at their aggressive peak only for a month a year, only the largest, most dominant bull would cover the females all the time. In captivity, the limited space makes it dangerous to let a bull in must condition to a female, since she may be attacked and wounded if she is not willing to mate.

Most cases of captive elephants killing their handlers, or reports of a"rogue" wild elephant running wild through villages and attacking people, is during musth, when they get out of control, and their level of aggression is high.

Younger bulls usually also go into a similar condition, from about their tenth year, but not so strong, and not so long time usually, a couple of days or a week, but may come in the condition more often, and may go in and out of musth more frequently, why the periods between the musth is described as Inter-musth.

Older bulls develop a stronger musth for every year, with a peak between 30 and 40, then gradually showing less symptoms.

Bulls aging over 55 does seldom show musth at all. Many Indian mahouts claim that Makhnas show lesser musth than tuskers.
In captivity, Asian bulls are claimed to have been in musth for over a year, (Hellabrunn Zoo, Munich) or longer. (Chieng Mai in Copenhagen Zoo) often in winter period when there is less sunlight.

African bulls in Zoo may start musth at older age, some starting to have only a light musth at 18-20 years. (Kibo in Boras Zoo)

Asian Wild bulls often go into musth during rain season, and when they have had unnormal access of food, so the reason for the longer musth periods in captivity may have a connection with the short days during winters, (hormones often depend on daylight) over-feeding, and under stimulation.

From Musth and sexual selection in elephants: a review of signalling properties and potential fitness consequences
Musth is characterised by a suite of physiological and behavioural changes, serving to facilitate copulation between the sexes, and via multisensory modalities musth conveys honest information about the condition of a male. Female elephants mate preferentially with musth males, increasing their own fitness in the absence of direct benefits. In addition, musth resolves dynamic dominance hierarchies among male elephants and often eliminates the need for costly physical combat.
Musth and sexual selection in elephants: a review of signalling properties and potential fitness consequences, Chase A. LaDue, Bruce A. Schulte, Wendy K. Kiso, and Elizabeth W. Freeman

Musth (Jtdu/Hindustani):([also: mada, madha, mast, mudda, must ; see also: sexually-active /inactive jainudeen, et al.1972; Poole & Moss 1981; Hall-Martin 1987; Poole 1987; Poole 1989a)

From the ancient Sanskrit word (mada ) which means "intoxication, excitement, rapture". Period of heightened sexual activity in mature males (average onset 29 years-old), characterized by urine-dribbling, G.P., strong odor, increased aggression, swollen temporal glands, T.G.S., and elevated testosterone-levels. Sometimes called a form of "sexual insanity" (Williams 1989:125). Musth has also been used to refer to the dark, strong-smelling, oily substance exuded from a male Asian elephant tempora! gland, although this term is not used for African elephants where both sexes secrete from the temporal glands. The term is mudda or madha in Sri Lanka; mon-Igrathi, mon-kyatti, mone, or mong-gyin in Burma.


Notes about Bandula (Bandoola) in Dehivela Zoo, Sri Lanka, by Wayne Jackson, Canada
he can work with all mahouts, but at musth time he is very bad, he is in musth Feb. and March for five to six months, at that time no one goes near him with the exception of the head mahout, the first couple months of his musth he is taken for a bath, after that he stays in the barn.

Last year he was a lot of trouble, he tried to destroy the shed for the first 2-3 months and then on all 4 legs, if he is turning very bad, the musth oil is washed off, when he comes out of musth the musth glands on the head are cleaned out and oil put in, the oil comes from cow's milk, called "ghee", then he will come into musth for 1-2 months, he didn't come into musth before, because he wasn't fit. when he was 22 he came into musth for 4 days to a week, but didn't come in the following year

Wayne Jackson, Canada

Notes 29 September 1998, by George Frei, ex elephant keeper, Zurich Zoo
In the last years Maxis musth time is in the winter. It starts in December or January and ends June or July, and his musth takes nearly a half year. We notice, when we clean his stable floor with water, that about 2 month before the musth really begins, the floor foams. In this time he is very horny, he try it by all cows.
George Frei

Notes by Fred Kurt and Khyne U Mar in Gajah 22 July 2003
(Myanmar) Bulls in musth are not allowed to be put in the work force and are given rest at secluded areas. However, durinq the pre-musth period, then most of the mating takes place, captive bulls can roam free during the night
Fred Kurt and Khyne U Mar

Internal relevant links on website

Musth mentioned in The Elephant Database
  • No country match the word Musth in the database.

2 locations holdings in the elephant database match the word Musth.

37 elephants in the elephant database match the word Musth

Reference list Koehl, Dan, (2023). Musth. Elephant Encyclopedia, available online retrieved 20 September 2021 at (archived at the Wayback machine)

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Links about Musth

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Musth mentioned on our sister website

2009-10-31‘must jumbo’ at dehivela zoo becomes restless - Elephant News

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Categories glossary | endocrinology

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