Thandora an African savanna elephant at Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve

Female ♀ African savanna Thandora at Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve

☨ Thandora
ID nr:
Species: African savanna elephant
Sex and age:Female ♀
Dead date: 2013-06-13
Death reason: disease: toxic shock
Location:Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve
ArrivalGondwana Big Five Game Reserve 2013-03-09
from Bloemfontein Zoo
Born:* wild
Offspring and year of birth:
  1. (F) 2006-01-17 Ashanti
Document updated2013-03-06:�will be transfered?
2013-06-14: dead, date not confirmed
2013-06-16: death reason
2013-03-06: After 23 years in captivity, an elephant at the Bloemfontein Zoo will soon be released back into the wild. Zoo officials decided to free 27-year-old Thandora after the death of her companion. She will soon be joining a herd of elephants in the Gondwana Game Reserve in the Western Cape.

2013-06-13: Thandora was found dead.

The oligosaccharides present in the milk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana), collected 4 days post partum, were separated by size exclusion-, anion exchange- and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) before characterisation by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were identified. Neutral oligosaccharides characterised were isoglobotriose, Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc and a novel oligosaccharide that has not been reported in the milk or colostrum of any other mammal: Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc. Acidic oligosaccharides that are also found in the milk of Asian elephant were Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc and Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3){Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�6)}Gal(β1�4)Glc, while Neu5Gc(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)[Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�6)]Gal(β1�4)Glc and Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3){Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�6)}Gal(β1�4)Glc have not been found in Asian elephant milk. The oligosaccharides characterised contained both α(2�3)- and α(2�6)-linked Neu5Ac residues. They also contain only the type II chain, as found in most non-human, eutherian mammals.

Reference list

Koehl, D., (2020). Thandora, an African savanna at Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve in South Africa. Elephant Encyclopedia, available online retrieved 30 October 2020 at (archived at the Wayback machine)

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