Im so sorry...
Due to a forced upgrade to PHP 7.2 and mysqli from Web hotel provider, the site is unfortunately not accessable. Im trying to solve the problem within the next 24 hours...


Thandora at Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve

Im so sorry...
Due to a forced upgrade to PHP 7.2 and mysqli from Web hotel provider, the site is unfortunately not accessable. Im trying to solve the problem within the next 24 hours...

Female ♀ African Bush elephant Thandora at Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve

† Thandora
ID Number:
Species: African Bush elephant
Sex and age:Female ♀, unknown Notice: Undefined variable: age in /customers/6/2/a/elephant.se/httpd.www/database2.php on line 777 Notice: Undefined variable: age in /customers/6/2/a/elephant.se/httpd.www/database2.php on line 782 maybe about years old (estimated age)
Dead date: 2013-06-13
Death reason: disease: toxic shock
Location:Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve
ArrivedGondwana Big Five Game Reserve 2013-03-09
(Todo: problem fetching history (php7,2 upgrade))
Born: wild
Offspring and year of birth:
  1. (F) 2006-01-17 Ashanti
Document updated2013-03-06:�will be transfered?
2013-03-18:�transfered
2013-06-14: dead, date not confirmed
2013-06-16: death reason
2013-03-06: After 23 years in captivity, an elephant at the Bloemfontein Zoo will soon be released back into the wild. Zoo officials decided to free 27-year-old Thandora after the death of her companion. She will soon be joining a herd of elephants in the Gondwana Game Reserve in the Western Cape.

2013-06-13: Thandora was found dead.

The oligosaccharides present in the milk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana), collected 4 days post partum, were separated by size exclusion-, anion exchange- and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) before characterisation by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were identified. Neutral oligosaccharides characterised were isoglobotriose, Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc and a novel oligosaccharide that has not been reported in the milk or colostrum of any other mammal: Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc. Acidic oligosaccharides that are also found in the milk of Asian elephant were Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc and Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3){Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�6)}Gal(β1�4)Glc, while Neu5Gc(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)[Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�6)]Gal(β1�4)Glc and Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3){Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�6)}Gal(β1�4)Glc have not been found in Asian elephant milk. The oligosaccharides characterised contained both α(2�3)- and α(2�6)-linked Neu5Ac residues. They also contain only the type II chain, as found in most non-human, eutherian mammals.

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