African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) at
Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve in South Africa

dead elephant ☨ ♀ Thandora  dead elephant

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Species:African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana)
Sex and age:Female ♀
Born:* wild
Birth place:
Dead: 2013-06-13
Death reason: disease: toxic shock
Total: 1 babies

1. Born 2006-01-17 Ashanti
Locations - owners
Present / last location:Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve, in South Africa

Date of arrival

2013-03-09Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve
from Bloemfontein Zoo

Record history
History of updates2013-03-06:�will be transfered?
2013-06-14: dead, date not confirmed
2013-06-16: death reason

Latest document update2020-10-18 06:25:24
Random literature

† Thandora is a dead Female ♀ African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana), , who died 2013-06-13 at Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve, in South Africa, . Official death reason described as toxic shock.


  1. (F) 2006-01-17 Ashanti


Thandora was born wild .

Comments / pictures

2013-03-06: After 23 years in captivity, an elephant at the Bloemfontein Zoo will soon be released back into the wild. Zoo officials decided to free 27-year-old Thandora after the death of her companion. She will soon be joining a Herd of elephants in the Gondwana Game Reserve in the Western Cape.

2013-06-13: Thandora was found dead.

The oligosaccharides present in the milk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana), collected 4 days post partum, were separated by size exclusion-, anion exchange- and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) before characterisation by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were identified. Neutral oligosaccharides characterised were isoglobotriose, Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc and a novel oligosaccharide that has not been reported in the milk or colostrum of any other mammal: Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc. Acidic oligosaccharides that are also found in the milk of Asian elephant were Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc and Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3){Gal(α1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�6)}Gal(β1�4)Glc, while Neu5Gc(α2�3)Gal(β1�4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]Glc, Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3)[Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�6)]Gal(β1�4)Glc and Neu5Ac(α2�6)Gal(β1�4)GlcNAc(β1�3){Gal(β1�4)[Fuc(α1�3)]GlcNAc(β1�6)}Gal(β1�4)Glc have not been found in Asian elephant milk. The oligosaccharides characterised contained both α(2�3)- and α(2�6)-linked Neu5Ac residues. They also contain only the type II chain, as found in most non-human, eutherian mammals.

Reference list


Koehl, Dan, (2023). Thandora, African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) located at Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve in South Africa. Elephant Encyclopedia, available online retrieved 1 December 2023 at (archived at the Wayback machine)

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Categories2013 deaths | Breeding cows | Elephants from Gondwana Big Five Game Reserve | South Africa | African savanna elephants

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