Microfilaria


Microfilaria of Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworms) in a lymph node impression smear from a dog with lymphoma.
Microfilaria of Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworms) in a lymph node impression smear from a dog with lymphoma.
Microfilaria found in blood slides LACEN State Laboratory of Amazonas Brazil
Microfilaria found in blood slides LACEN State Laboratory of Amazonas Brazil



Relevant Literature about Microfilaria
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The microfilaria (plural microfilariae, sometimes abbreviated mf) is an early stage in the life cycle of certain parasitic nematodes in the family Onchocercidae.[2] In these Species, the Adults live in a tissue or the circulatory system of vertebrates (the "definitive hosts"). They release microfilariae into the bloodstream of the vertebrate host. The microfilariae are taken up by blood-feeding arthropod vectors (the "intermediate hosts"). In the intermediate host the microfilariae develop into infective larvae that can be transmitted to a new vertebrate host.

The presence of microfilariae in the host bloodstream is called "microfilaraemia". The success of filariasis eradication programs is typically gauged by the reduction in numbers of circulating microfilariae in infested individuals within a geographic area. (Wikipedia)

A survey for the occurrence of Microfilaria in the blood of 40 elephants age ranged from 3-55 years (approximately). Two ml of blood obtained by venopuncture from the ear vein was carried out. Blood smears were examined for Microfilaria by Modified Knot Technique. Blood from 38 out of 40 elephants were positive. All blood positive elephants showed no signs of illness except one whose blood had Microfilaria over 30 per one slide which is considered heavy infestation. No Adult worms were found within the elephants'>Heart chambers at Necropsy of 6 elephants age ranging from 3-60 years. (Somkiat Trongwongsa, Microfilaria in elephants, 1981)

From The first report on internal transcribed spacer region-based characterization of microfilaria in Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) in Thailand Location: Elephant Kingdom Project, Zoological Park Organization of Thailand, Tha Tum, Surin, Thailand

Filarial infections can significantly impact the health of both humans and animals. In elephants, filariasis has been associated with cutaneous Dermatitis and skin nodules. However, molecular evidence for such infections is limited in Thailand. This study aimed to identify the morphological and molecular characteristics of microfilaria in captive Asian elephants in Thailand. Conventional PCR revealed that approximately 17% (22/129) of the sampled elephants were positive for microfilaria. Microscopy revealed that microfilariae are large, unsheathed, with extended nuclei, a short headspace, and a curved tail tapering at the end. Microfilaria infection was not associated with age; however, microfilariae were more likely to be detected in male elephants due to differences in management systems.
Choenkwan Pabutta, Nuttapon Bangkaew, Pratthana Inthawong, Pannarai Mahadthai, Waleemas Jairak, Nantana Soda, Manakorn Sukmak, Supaphen Sripiboon, The first report on internal transcribed spacer region-based characterization of microfilaria in Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) in Thailand


Reference list Koehl, Dan, (2024). Microfilaria. Elephant Encyclopedia, available online retrieved 20 September 2021 at https://www.elephant.se/index.php?id=52. (archived at the Wayback machine)


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Selected publications
  • *Somkiat Trongwongsa, Microfilaria in elephants, 1981
  • *Choenkwan Pabutta, Nuttapon Bangkaew, Pratthana Inthawong, Pannarai Mahadthai, Waleemas Jairak, Nantana Soda, Manakorn Sukmak, Supaphen Sripiboon, The first report on internal transcribed spacer region-based characterization of microfilaria in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand

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